Trifolium pratense L.
Perennial 30-60 cm heigh.
Native to Europe. It is spread in all Central Asia regions.
Grows on waste grounds, abandoned sites, fields, roadsides, railroads.
Carbohydrates: arabinose, glucose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose, xylose (following hydrolysis of saponin glycosides); polysaccharide (a galactoglucomannan). Coumarins : coumarin, medicagol. Isoflavonoids : biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin, genistein, pratensin, trifoside, calycosine galactoside(1) and pectolinarin. Flavonoids : isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin, and their glycosides.
Saponins : soyasapogenols B–F (C–F artefacts) and carbohydrates (see above) yielded by acid hydrolysis. Other constituents: coumaric acid, phaseolic acid, salicylic acid, trans- and cis-clovamide (L-dopa conjugated with trans- and cis –caffeic acids), resin, volatile oil (containing furfural), fats, vitamins and minerals. Cyanogenetic glycosides have been documented.
Traditional Use and Activity
Red clover is known dermatological agent. It has mild antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Tannins are known to have astringent properties. Traditionally red clover has been used for the treatment of chronic skin disease, whooping cough, and, specifically, eczema and psoriasis. There is evidence that constituents (isoflavones) of red clover have oestrogenic effects.